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Formatting references for the Journal of Private Enterprise

Journal of Private Enterprise guidelines for formatting references are similar to American Economic Association guidelines, with some modifications based on the Chicago Manual of Style. In addition, the Journal of Private Enterprise has journal specific guidelines for citing online content (see below).

Books

Author last name, first name. Year. Title of Book. City of publication: Publisher.

A) One Author

Example:

Mises, Ludwig von. 1944. Bureaucracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Please include the state of publication unless it is a major city that cannot be confused with a city of the same name in another state. So while “New York” stands alone, “Cambridge” needs an “MA” or “UK” for clarification.

B) Two Authors

Example:

Cecchetti, Stephen G., and Kermit L. Schoenholtz. 2011. Money, Banking and Financial Markets. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

In the case of two authors, only the first author’s name is inverted. Place a comma before and after the first author’s name or initials. Use “and” between the two author’s names.

C) Chapter in a Book

Author last name, first name. Year. “Chapter or Article Title.” In Book Title, followed by ed. and name of editor(s) if appropriate, and chapter page numbers. City of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Ehrlich, Isaac. 1974. “Participation in Illegitimate Activities: An Economic Analysis.” In The Economics of Crime and Punishment, ed. Gary Becker and William Landes, 68–134. New York: Columbia University Press.

 

D) Multivolume Works

Multivolume works include works such as encyclopedias, multivolume works published over several years, and multivolume works published in a single year. Below are a few examples.

Example 1:

Mises, Ludwig von. 1949. Human Action. Vol. 1. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.

Example 2:

Salinger, Lawrence M., ed. 2005. Encyclopedia of White-Collar & Corporate Crime. 2 vols. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Example 3:

Woodbridge, John, and Frank A. James III. 2013. From Pre-Reformation to the Present Day. Vol. 2, Church History. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

E) Reprints and Modern Editions

If citing a reprint or modern edition and the original publication date is important, include the original date first, in parentheses, after the author’s  name, then the new date, followed by the book title. Then cite the original place of publication and publisher, followed by the reprint/modern edition place of publication and publisher. Also indicate which edition you are citing.

For the in-text citation, place the original publication date in brackets, followed by the reprint/modern publication date.

Example 1 (from the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, section 15.38):

Austen, Jane. (1813) 2003. Pride and Prejudice. London: T. Egerton. Reprint, New York: Penguin Classics. Citations refer to the Penguin edition.

(Austen [1813] 2003)

 

Journal Articles

A) Published Articles

Format when there is a volume number and an issue number:

Author last name, first name. Year. “Article title.” Journal Title, Volume (Issue number if applicable): page numbers.

Example:

Garrison, Roger W. 1984. “Time and Money: The Universals of Macroeconomic Theorizing.” Journal of Macroeconomics, 6(2): 197–213.

When there is a volume number but no issue number, use the month in place of the issue number:

Format when there is a volume number but no issue number:

Author last name, first name. Year. “Article title.” Journal Title, Volume (Month): page numbers.

Example:

Mulligan, Robert F. 2013. “New Evidence on the Structure of Production: Real and Austrian Business Cycle Theory and the Financial Instability Hypothesis.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 86 (February): 67–77.

As with books, in the case of two authors, only the first author’s name is inverted. Place a comma before and after the first author’s name or initials. Use “and” between the two authors’ names.

Lester, Robert B., and Jonathan S. Wolff. 2013. “The Empirical Relevance of the Mises-Hayek Theory of the Trade Cycle.” Review of Austrian Economics, 26(4): 433–61.

B) Forthcoming Articles

Example:

Boettke, Peter J., and Vipin P. Veetil. Forthcoming. “Models of Human Action. Cosmos + Taxis.

Magazine Articles

A) Authored Magazine Articles

Author last name, first name. Year. “Article title.” Magazine Title, month or month and day, page numbers.

Example:

Forbes, Steve. 2014. “New, Revolutionary Way to Measure the Economy Is Coming—Believe Me, This Is a Big Deal.” Forbes, April 14.

In the case of two authors, only the first author’s name is inverted. Place a comma before and after the first author’s name or initials. Use “and” between the two author’s names.

B) Nonauthored Magazine Articles and Op-Eds

Magazine Title. Year. “Article title,” month or date, page numbers.

Example:

New York Times editorial board. 2016. “Deregulating Corporate America.” New York Times, January 19.

Unpublished Papers

A) Working Papers

Author last name, first name. Year. “Title.” Kind of working paper (such as institution, working series title) and number.

Example 1:

Kane, Edward J. 2013. “Hair of the Dog That Bit Us: The Insufficiency of New and Improved Capital Requirements.” Boston College working paper, March 20.

Example 2:

Erber, Georg. 2012. “What Is Unorthodox Monetary Policy?” Social Science Research Network Working Paper 2139443.

In the case of two authors, only the first author’s name is inverted. Place a comma before and after the first author’s name or initials. Use “and” between the two authors’ names.

B) Lectures and Papers Presented at Meetings

Author last name, first name. Year. “Title.” Paper presented at followed by lecture/meeting name, location where lecture/meeting took place, and month and date of lecture/meeting.

Example 1:

Stock, James, and Mark Watson. 2003. “Has the Business Cycle Changed? Evidence and Explanations.” Paper presented at Monetary Policy and Uncertainty, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas Symposium, Jackson Hole, WY, August 28–30.

Example 2:

Elu, Juliet, and Gregory Price. 2015. “Is Regional Integration Beneficial for Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Case of CEMAC and WAEMU.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Economic Association, Boston.

C) Theses and Dissertations

Author last name, first name. Year. “Title.” PhD diss., University.

Example:

Robbs, Cherease Lampkins. 2011. “The Independence of the Fed: ‘In the Fed We Trust’ or Are We Just ‘Fed Up’?” Master of arts thesis, Georgetown University.

In the case of two authors, only the first author’s name is inverted. Place a comma before and after the first author’s name or initials. Use “and” between the two author’s names.

Special note in the case of three or more authors

In the case of works by 3 to 10 authors, all names are given as follows: Author last name, first name, Author first name, last name, and author first name, last name.

Example:

Selgin, George, William D. Lastrapes, and Lawrence H. White.

In the case of works by 11 or more authors, list only the first 7, followed by et al.

For in-text citations, only use et al. when there are four or more authors. For three authors, use all three last names.

Example: (Selgin, Lastrapes, and White 2014)

 

Journal of Private Enterprise specific instructions for references of works available online

The Journal of Private Enterprise is a print journal that does not use hyperlinks. As a general rule, we do not use URLs to direct readers to a source. Our reasoning is as follows:

(1) In modern times, typing a title in a search engine is usually easier than typing a URL.

(2) Having full URLs in print is inelegant, space-consuming, and requires readers to view long strings of text.

(3) URLs often change and may be outdated by the time a reader would attempt to consult them.

Exceptions exist, but most online material can be cited similar to regular articles or books.

In addition, we do not use access dates.

Citing books or articles that appear both in print and online:

If the citation is to a book, journal, newspaper, or magazine that is both printed and online, simply format it like a printed reference and omit the URL.

If you are citing a newspaper that does not mention the page numbers of the printed version on its website, use the month and day in place of the page numbers.

If the text is on a website of a corporate entity and does not list the individual author, list the corporate entity as the author.

Incorrect for the Journal of Private Enterprise:

Ivry, Bob, Bradley Keoun, and Phil Kuntz. 2011. “Secret Fed Loans Gave Banks $13 Billion Undisclosed to Congress.” Bloomberg.com, November 27, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-11-28/secret-fed-loans-undisclosed-to-congress-gave-banks-13-billion-in-income. Accessed June 6, 2014.

Correct for the Journal of Private Enterprise:

Ivry, Bob, Bradley Keoun, and Phil Kuntz. 2011. “Secret Fed Loans Gave Banks $13 Billion Undisclosed to Congress.” Bloomberg.com, November 27.

Citing manuscripts or posts that only appear online:

Use your discretion, but follow these general guidelines:

If the manuscript is similar to an article and is published in an online journal or news source, cite it like a regular article.

If the manuscript is similar to a book, cite it like a regular book and list the corporate entity and the corporate entity’s headquarters as the publisher and place of publication.

Incorrect for the Journal of Private Enterprise:

Horwitz, Steven. 2013. An Introduction to US Monetary Policy. Mercatus Research. Arlington, VA: Mercatus Center. Available at http://mercatus.org/sites/default/files/Horwitz_MonetaryPolicy_v1.pdf. Accessed August 9, 2014.

Correct for Journal of Private Enterprise:

Horwitz, Steven. 2013. An Introduction to US Monetary Policy. Mercatus Research. Arlington, VA: Mercatus Center.